Alps, Munich


Amiga 1200 Mouse Button Fix

While I was restauring an Amiga 1200, I noticed that on that machine, the right and middle mouse buttons did not react on both ports. Checking it further, it turned out that it was working with an original Amiga mouse, but failed with my YAMI mouse interface. The mouse interface could not be the cause though, as it is actually working reliably for decades on all kind of Amigas, including an Amiga 1200.

The problem is already known to the community, and also seems to affect other mouse interfaces. The mitigation options I could find so far were:

  • Just use the original Amiga mouse. πŸ˜‰
  • Modify the mouse interface. There is a "fixed" version available for some of them.
  • Use a "FixRMB" tool. This tool needs to be started first though, so it won't work for reaching the boot menu or in games. It also requires a mouse interface with internal pull-up resistors. (YAMI does not have those, for example.)
  • Some said they were lucky with replacing the Paula chip, but it requires experience in soldering.

None of these options is really appealing to me. I want this Amiga to work like all the others. So I tried to figure out what is the actual problem here, and how to fix it properly.

The middle and right mouse buttons are connected to the POT pins of Paula. These inputs are actually made for analog joysticks, and provide a very simple ADC. The analog joystick charges a capacitor, while a counter inside Paula is taking the time. As soon as the voltage of the capacitor reaches a certain level, the timer is stopped. The position of the joystick can be evaluated by the time it needed to charge the capacitor.

But there is also a digital mode, which is used for mouse buttons. If enabled, a resistor inside Paula pulls up the POT line. If the mouse button is pressed, the mouse switch pulls the line to LOW, which can then be read from the Paula registers.

When an original mouse was connected, the POT line was pulled to 0.9V while the button was depressed. However, when the mouse interface was connected, the line was only pulled to 1.1V. It seems like a tiny difference, but for this Paula chip, it already makes the difference between "button pressed" and "button released".

The affected Paula with "4193" date code. Only a certain batch of Paula chips seems to be affected. This is the reason why this problem does not occur on all Amiga 1200, but presumably only on some 1D.4 boards. This is also the reason why replacing the Paula chip is fixing that issue. On my board, a "CSG 8364R7PL" with date code 4193 is used. I also heard of one more case with a Paula chip of the same production week.

Next question: Why only Amiga 1200 models seem to be affected by this issue, although it is likely that the affected Paula batch was also used in Amiga 4000 production? When comparing the schematics of both machines, there is a notable difference. This is a simplified extract of the joystick or mouse port:

SVG Picture created as paula-pot.svg date 2022/10/10 11:01:53Picture generated by Eeschema-SVG112233445566778899POTYPOTYPOTXPOTXSVG Picture created as paula-pot.svg date 2022/10/10 11:01:53

The difference is in the parts marked with a red circle. They are used as EMI filter. For the Amiga 4000, Commodore has used ferrites there. It is basically just a wire inside a ferrite bead, giving a resistance of 0Ξ© at low frequencies. In the Amiga 1200 (and Amiga 600) though, Commodore used standard 68Ξ© resistors, presumably to cut costs.

Together with the pull-up resistor inside Paula, this resistor works as a voltage divider. The switch inside a classic Amiga mouse pulls this divider to ground, giving 0.9V at the POT input, just enough to get detected as LOW.

SVG Picture created as paula-pot.svg date 2022/10/10 19:43:20Picture generated by Eeschema-SVGMouse Button68Ξ©POTPaula Pullup0.9V5V0V68Ξ©Mouse ButtonPOTPaula PullupSVG Picture created as paula-pot.svg date 2022/10/10 19:43:20

The mouse interface does not have a real switch though, but a logical output. For example, the PIC16F84 that is used in the YAMI interface provides a LOW voltage of 0.6V. Now the voltage divider gives 1.1V at the POT input, which is interpreted as HIGH by Paula.

SVG Picture created as paula-pot.svg date 2022/10/10 19:43:20Picture generated by Eeschema-SVGMouse InterfacePaula PullupPOT68Ξ©5V0.6V1.1VPaula PullupPOT68Ξ©Mouse InterfaceSVG Picture created as paula-pot.svg date 2022/10/10 19:43:20

I could not find out if the pull-up resistor inside Paula has a lower resistance in that batch, or if there is a different threshold for detecting LOW levels. Both would be possible.

To fix the problem on my Amiga 1200, I replaced the 68Ξ© resistors E353R, E354R, E363R, and E364R with the SMD 1206 ferrites that are used in the Amiga 4000. They are a bit bigger than the 0804 resistors, but can still be soldered straight to the pads.

The position of the replacement ferrites.

This is just a minor change to the hardware that could be done even by soldering novices (at least rather than unsoldering a PLCC chip). After that change, the mouse interface was working too.

PS: If you found this article because your Amiga is also having the problem, please send me the date code of your Paula chip. Maybe we can find a pattern of "bad" date codes. Thank you!

MaestroPro Internal

MacroSystem Maestro Professional In the mid 1990s, MacroSystem Germany released the Maestro Professional sound card for the Amiga. It was a special sound card because it was fully digital, having only optical and coaxial digital connectors. It was suited for lossless recording from CD and DAT, as well as generating lossless audio output for DAT recordings. With tools like Samplitude, the Amiga became a studio quality digital audio workstation. There was also a tool for doing backups on DAT. At that time, these tapes were the cheapest way to backup entire harddisks (a 90 minutes DAT tape could backup almost 1 GB of data, which was a lot in the 1990s).

Unfortunately MacroSystem had never released a driver for the sound card, so it could only be used by a few (and mostly commerical) tools. I pestered their developers at every Amiga fair I could attend, but to no avail. Then, at the end of 1994, I decided to find the datasheets of the Yamaha chips, reverse engineer the board design, and write a driver myself. It took some time of trial and error, but eventually I was successful. In the coming years, my driver, the maestix.library (source code), became the inofficial standard driver. OctaMed Professional is maybe the most prominent software using it. Some professional music artists used Amiga and OctaMED for their production, so maybe my driver was even used for recording the masters of some famous CDs? 😁

Digital Audio in a Nutshell

The MaestroPro is able to receive and transmit digital audio data, either in the S/P-DIF or AES-EBU standard. The former one is still widely used in home equipment today, while the latter one was rather common in studio equipment. Today's standards permit different encodings and high sampling rates, but the MaestroPro could only read 2-channel 16-bit raw audio with sampling rates of either 48kHz (DAT), 44.1kHz (CD), or 32kHz (DAB).

Besides the raw audio data, the standard also transports Channel Status Bits (CSB) and User Data Bits (UDB). The CSB contain information like the used sampling rate and the copy prohibition state. The UDB are not standardized, and usually transport proprietary data between studio equipment.

Inside the Maestro

The board's design is straightforward. It mainly contains a transmitter, a receiver, and FIFO memory for transporting the samples between the board and AmigaOS.

YM3437C DIT2
Serial to Parallel
Serial to Parallel
Parallel to Serial
Parallel to Serial
R-FIFO 1Kx16
R-FIFO 1Kx16
T-FIFO 1Kx16
T-FIFO 1Kx16
UDB Shift Register
UDB Shift Register
Sampling Clock
Sampling Clock
Optical Out
Optical Out
Input Signal
Input Signal
UDB Data
UDB Data
Text is not SVG - cannot display

The optical and coaxial inputs go to a Yamaha YM3623B Digital Audio Interface Receiver (DIR). This chip decodes the audio data stream, extracts the CSB and UDB, and generates a raw bit stream of the audio samples. Shift registers convert it to a 16 bit parallel stream, which is stored in a 1K x 16 bit receiver FIFO. As soon as the FIFO is half filled, an interrupt is raised, and the Amiga driver reads the received data from the FIFO. This happens up to 190 times per second.

The most important CSB are readable via a status register of the board controller. The UDB are copied to a separate 8 bit shift register, which could be polled by the driver. However, UDB are usually 32 bit wide, so reading them was never really used in practice (at least not to my knowledge). The Maestix driver only provided a very rudimentary API for the UDB.

On the transmitter side, the 16 bit samples are pushed to a transmitter FIFO, and then converted to a serial bit stream by shift registers. A Yamaha YM3437C Digital Audio Interface Transmitter (DIT2) converts it to a digital audio stream and sends it via an optical output. The Maestro Pro does not have a coaxial output, presumably because there was not enough space on the board for a fourth connector.

The DIT2 is unable to generate the sampling rate clock by itself. It needs an external clock source instead. On the Maestro Pro, this clock is generated by the DIR. It is either derived from the bit stream of the selected input, or generated by an internal fixed 48kHz clock source. For this reason, the Maestro Pro needs to rely on external signal sources for 32kHz and 44.1kHz output sampling rates.

The transmitter can choose from two data sources. One source is the transmitter FIFO. The other source is the bit stream from the DIR, bypassing the FIFOs. This enables the board to modify the UDB and CSB of the incoming signal directly, without involving the CPU. But since the transmitter and reciver paths are fully separate, the MaestroPro is even capable of providing full-duplex audio streaming. The maestix.library takes advantage of that with the "realtime FX" feature, where the signal is read from the receiver FIFO, modified by the CPU, and then immediately sent back to the transmitter FIFO.

The entire board is controlled by three GALs and a small handful of 74LS logic chips. They take care of the Zorro bus protocol, provide mode and state registers, and orchestrate the transmitter and receiver paths.

Broken MaestroPro

All of the components of a MaestroPro can still be found on the market, although both Yamaha chips are not produced any more and can only be found on some Chinese online markets as NOS parts. But basically, it is still possible to repair a broken MaestroPro.

The major weakness are the three custom programmed GALs. The GAL manufacturer states a memory retention time of about 20 years. It sounds like pretty much, but remember that these boards are almost 30 years old now. We already exceeded that life span by 50%!

When I reactivated my Amiga in 2021, my MaestroPro was working fine for a couple of minutes, but then it started to lose synchronization with the audio source. The only way to fix that problem was to turn off the Amiga and let it cool down for several minutes. A deeper diagnostics showed that the card seemed to detach itself from the Zorro bus. It seemed that one of the GAL chips had thermal problems, or was maybe starting to "forget" its programming. Fortunately I was able to recover the programming scheme. I replaced the original GALs with brand new Atmel ATF16V8C-7PU ones, and to my relief, my MaestroPro is now working stable again.

The fusemaps are copyrighted by MacroSystem, so I am not permitted to share them to the public. However, if you happen to have a broken Maestro Pro, please get in contact with me. Maybe I can help you to repair it.

The Maestro (without Pro)

There was a predecessor of this board. It was just called "Maestro", and had some major drawbacks. First of all, it had no transmitter and could only receive audio data. Secondly, it did not have a FIFO, so the sample words had to be read by the CPU as soon as they became available, which is up to 96,000 times per second. This was only possible by turning off multitasking and interrupts during recording, which also meant that recordings could not be written to harddisk, but had to be stored in RAM first.

Compared to its successor, the Maestro hasn't been a great success. I haven't seen one since the end of the 1990s, and I also don't know a single software that is actually using it. Due to the technical limitations, the Maestix driver won't support it.

Open-Sourcing old Amiga software

The Yamaha YM3623B Digital Audio Interface Receiver on a MaestroPro sound board After 22 years, I released an update of a software I wrote in the end 1990's for the Amiga platform. It is a driver for the MacroSystem MaestroPro, a fully digital sound board. Along with the update, I have opened the source code of that library.

The sound driver itself is not that interesting, actually. I don't think there are many people on this world still using the sound board. What's more interesting is how I changed the project, to make it open-source and compilable under Linux and other modern platforms. That's what this article is about.

Versioning (or the lack of)

The first problem I faced was rather unexpected. Back in the good old Amiga days, I hadn't used revision control systems like CVS. Being just a hobby developer, I didn't knew about their existence nor their purpose. Instead, I frequently made backups of my source codes, so I wouldn't lose them in case of a harddisk failure, or after a botched code redesign. But besides that, programming was a surgery on the open heart of the source code, with no way to revert to a previous state that was known to be working.

As result, I found multiple different versions of the project on my Amiga harddisk, and I had to figure out what the latest one was. In this project I was lucky, because I had added a changelog to the main file of the source. I just had to find the copy with the most recent changelog.

Without a revision control system, the source of all older releases are lost, so I didn't even try to recreate a history from the backups. The last version on the Aminet was V41.40, but I couldn't find the source of that release any more. What I found instead was a V41.50 that was never released. I cannot remember why I decided not to release that version. Maybe the changes turned out to be a regression? Maybe I just lost interest in the Amiga, and didn't bother to release it any more?

Anyway, I could at least find the latest version of the source code. What to do with it? As I became a professional software developer since then, it was clear to me that I would not go on with just keeping the latest source code version (and some random backups), but I wanted to use a revision control system now.

I prefer to use git today. It would fit nicely into my development environment, and would permit to publish my source codes in my GitHub repository. But git was never ported to the classic Amiga, and probably never will due to its complexity.

Olaf Barthel did a port of subversion though. The last release was in 2009, and bases on a very old Subversion version 1.1.4. It wouldn't be much fun to use it, but it would be feasible.

There is also a CVS port made by Frank Wille, but I never really liked CVS, so this was no option for me.

So svn and git were the only candidates, with a strong preference to use git, but svn as the only option that would work on AmigaOS. The decision was connected to the next question.


On what platform do I want to continue developing?

I could go on and develop the project on the Amiga, like I did in the 1990s. I had everything I needed there. I used GoldEd as editor, with customized macros for compiling my projects. I used PhxAss as assembler, and SAS/C as C compiler. None of this software is still maintained, and SAS/C was a commercial product that is not available any more. With these strict requirements, just a few people would be technically able to participate in the project.

Today, Amiga enthusiasts use the vbcc toolchain for development. It is still actively maintained. And it runs on AmigaOS, but also on all major operating systems. As editor, Visual Studio Code is a preferred choice because there is an Amiga Assembly Add-on available. It supports syntax highlighting, inline documentation, debugging, and much more.

These are the missing pieces of the puzzle. With vbcc, it is possible to build the project on Linux and other platforms, so almost every Amiga developer is able to participate. Developing on Linux also enables me to use git and all the other tools I got used to. But with just a few modifications to the makefile, the project could still be built on AmigaOS.

I decided to go the Linux way, but it's a decision that every retro developer has to do for themself. Cross-building an Amiga project on Linux would be comfortable (and fast), but is not really "retro". Building on AmigaOS would be the true retro spirit, but would leave me with an outdated and partially unmaintained toolset.


It was easy to copy the source files to my Linux file system, and initialize a git project there. The next problem I faced was that I had to port the makefile. It was tailor-made to my AmigaOS environment, with special assigns for include files and binaries.

I created a new makefile that was using env variables instead. AMIGA_NDK now points to the unpacked AmigaOS 3.2 NDK, while AMIGA_INCLUDES points to the include files of external dependencies (like MUI). I installed vbcc so all the commands were in the $PATH.

After that, I restructured and rearranged all the source code files. The project now only contains my own files that are absolutely necessary for building the project. An invocation of make then builds the project on my Linux machine.


There was an unexpected problem with the charset. While all modern operating systems use UTF-8, AmigaOS does not support it, but uses ISO-8859-1 instead. The result is that the repository contained an awful mix of both charsets. All files that are intended to be used by the git environment (like the file) are stored in UTF-8. Other files that are AmigaOS related (like AmigaGuide files) must be stored in ISO-8859-1 instead.

I was hoping that I could define the correct encoding for each file type in an .editorconfig file. But sadly, Visual Studio Code ignores the charset settings and instead uses UTF-8 by default. It was too easy to accidentally destroy all special characters (like the German Umlaut in my family name) that way.

The only solution I found was to use UTF-8 or ISO-8859-1 only where absolutely necessary, but for most files I used ASCII as the lowest common denominator. An own make target make check checks all files for illegal characters, enforcing the proper usage of the encodings.


Of course I want to test (and run) the result on AmigaOS, either in UAE, or on a real Amiga.

On UAE, the created files can just be copied straight to the Amiga harddisk directory, and then immediately used in the emulated Amiga.

For the real Amiga, it's a bit more difficult though. One way is to create an ADF disk file using xdftool, and copy the files to it. That ADF file can then be copied to an USB stick, and read in the Amiga using a Gotek floppy drive emulator.

A better way is to use a simple NFS server that is mounted on both the Linux and Amiga machines. Files can be easily exchanged that way. Of couse it requires that the Amiga has a network connection.


Back in the Amiga days, making a release was a fully manual process. For this purpose, I had a separate directory with a release template. I manually copied all compiled files to the proper places of that template, then packed it, and uploaded it to the Aminet.

Now I want the git project to be self-contained, so all the files of the release template are in the distribution directory. The make release target builds the entire project, then creates a fresh release directory, copies all the files to the correct places, and creates an lha package.

On a modern Linux machine, the entire process (from a clean checkout to the distribution package) takes less than a second. 🀩

And that's it. The source of the maestix.library is now open and available at GitHub. The first release that was built on the new environment, can be downloaded from the AmiNet.


You may have laughed now, but it's true: It is possible to do CI/CD with Amiga projects!

vamos is a virtual Amiga runtime environment that permits to run simple Amiga commands on Linux. It's just a CPU and API emulation, not a full-blown emulator like UAE, but it is sufficient to run unit test suites.

There are Docker images like docker4amigavbcc that, for example, permit to automatically build commits using GitLab CI.

And since it's easy to upload new packages to the AmiNet, even Continuous Deployment would be possible. Just create a version tag, and let your CI/CD chain do the rest. πŸ™‚

Altogether, it is possible to develop these retro projects in a state-of-the-art fashion, with a modern IDE, source versioning, platform neutral development, unit tests, and even CI/CD.

Amiga Assigns

AmigaOS was an operating system that was way ahead of its time. It had features that other home operating systems (like Windows or MacOS) were missing back then, like preemptive multitasking. There was also a feature that was called assignments. I truly miss that one on Linux!

An Amiga "assign" is a bit similar to the drive letter you may know from Windows. For example, the Windows path C:\example.txt refers to a file called example.txt in the root directory of the main partition, while the same file on the first floppy drive is called A:\example.txt.

On Amiga, the main partition is usually called DH0:, the second partition is called DH1: and so on, while the first floppy drive is called DF0:. A similar path on the Amiga would thus be DH0:example.txt or DF0:example.txt.

As you can see, on the Amiga a "drive letter" can actually consist of multiple characters and also numbers. This is called an assignment. The name DH0 is assigned to the main harddisk partition.

But wait, there is more!

You can have multiple assigns pointing to the same target. For example, the main partition usually contains the Amiga desktop environment, called Workbench. For this reason, the main partition also has a label like Workbench, and the file could also be accessed as Workbench:example.txt.

This is actually quite a smart concept, especially for exchangeable media. For example, let's imagine we have just started a game called shredzone, and it needs to access a file Music/Opening.mod on its installation disk (AmigaOS uses a slash as file separator, like all proper operating systems). It would open a file called shredzone:Music/Opening.mod.

AmigaOS would see that there is no assignment called shredzone, and would pop up a dialog like this:

From a user's perspective, I would now know that I have to find a medium called shredzone, and insert it into the computer. It does not matter if it's a floppy disk, a CD, or even a network mount. AmigaOS also does not command me to insert the medium into a certain drive. If it's a floppy disk, and I have multiple floppy drives, I can just pick the one I like to. AmigaOS will then detect that a medium with that name was inserted, would close the dialog, and grant the game access to the file.

On Linux, I would need to access that medium under a path like /run/media/shred/shredzone, which is a lot to type, contains my user name, and is harder to remember than just shredzone:.

But wait, there is still more! πŸ˜„

It is easy to add assignments to the system via command line. It's even possible to use subdirectories as assignment target. Let's stay with our shredzone game example. I got tired of having to insert the installation disk every time I want to play that game. So I create a directory called DH2:Games/Shredzone/Files on my hard drive, and I copy all files of that disk to that directory.

After that, I enter this command on the command line:

assign shredzone: DH2:Games/Shredzone/Files

Now, when I start the game, AmigaOS will see that there is a shredzone assign already existing, and will access the files there. So the song file shredzone:Music/Opening.mod would be accessed at DH2:Games/Shredzone/Files/Music/Opening.mod.

AmigaOS makes use of assigns itself. For example, there is a standard assignment called C:. It usually points to the C directory of the booting device, where all command line commands (like dir, copy, delete etc) are expected to be present. This assign is similar to what $PATH is to a Linux shell.

Imagine I have installed a set of development tools, like an assembler and a C compiler. The commands of this toolset can be found at DH1:Development/DevTools/C. On a Linux system, I would add this path to the $PATH env variable, so I can just type the command name to execute one of these commands.

On AmigaOS, I just add this path to an existing assignment:

assign add C: DH1:Development/DevTools/C

Now AmigaOS knows that when I enter a command in the command line, it has to look for it in Workbench:C, and if it's not found there, it will try to find it in DH1:Development/DevTools/C. I could even execute commands like dir C:, and see all files in both directories. Of course, it is not limited to two targets.

There is still more, like deferred assigns. But I only want to give you a general impression of what Amiga assigns are, and why I miss them on Linux.

Multiplication on a Z80 processor

The one thing computers are really good at is calculating. You might now expect that all CPUs are capable of the four basic arithmetic operations, but that isn't the case. The first 8 bit processors were only able to add and subtract numbers, and even the subtraction was performed by adding the negated subtrahend. Multiplication and division instructions first appeared on 16 bit processors, albeit they were still very slow in the first generation.

Simple multiplications and divisions by powers of two can be achieved by shifting a value bitwise to the left or right, respectively. This is, shifting a value by one bit to the left is the same as multiplying it by 2, while shifting by two bits to the left multiplies it by 4, and so on.

But how can we multiply any two numbers? It has to be done step by step, by using basic operations like addition or bit rotation. This article will explain how it works on a Z80 CPU.

Back at school, we have learned to multiply large numbers by long multiplication. Basically, we break up the problem by multiplying the multiplier with each digit of the multiplicand, and then summing the products. For example, if we want to compute the product of 27 and 12, we compute 27Γ—2 = 54 and 27Γ—1 = 27, and then sum the products 57+270 = 324.

  27 Γ— 12
 +    27βˆ™

We can use the same algorithm on a computer. But wait, wouldn't we still have to multiply, even if with smaller numbers? Actually, no! Since computers use binary digits, we only need to multiply either by 1, giving the value itself, or by 0, always giving 0.

This is the the same long multiplication of 27 (11011) and 12 (1100) with binary numbers:

  11011 Γ— 1100
 +    11011βˆ™βˆ™βˆ™

The steps can be executed in a loop. At the beginning, a result register is initialized with zero. If the rightmost bit of the multiplicand is 1, the multiplier is added to the result register. After that, the multiplicand is rotated to the right by one bit, and the multiplier is rotated to the left by one bit. This loop is repeated until the multiplicand is zero, because the result won't change after that anymore.

The following Z80 assembler code example multiplies the values in the BC and DE register pairs, and returns the product in the HL register pair. If an overflow occured during multiplication, the Carry flag will be set.

The multiplicant is kept in the BC register pair. To rotate it one bit to the right, we first use the srl b instruction. It rotates the B register, moving the value of bit 0 to the Carry flag, and inserting a 0 to bit 7, so the multiplicant is filled up with zeros with each rotation. After that, rr c rotates the C register and moves the content of the Carry flag to bit 7. Both instructions combined rotate the BC register pair one bit to the right, insert a 0 to the highest bit. The lowest bit is moved to the Carry flag, where it can be tested.

image/svg+xml0010010110011010Carry0BCCarrysrl brr c7654321076543210

We essentially do the same with the multiplier in the DE register pair, but in the opposite direction. As a rotation to the left by one bit essentially just doubles the value, we also could have used add de,de. Sadly the Z80 does not offer such an instruction.

multiply:	ld	hl, 0		; clear the result register
.loop:		ld	a, b		; is BC == 0?
		or	c		;   (also resets carry flag)
		ret     z		; then we're done!
		srl	b		; logical right shift of BC
		rr	c		; bit 0 goes to carry flag
		jr	nc, .zerobit	; unless bit 0 was 0
		add	hl, de		; add multiplier to result
		ret	c		;   return on overflow
.zerobit:	sla	e		; shift multiplier to the left
		rl	d		;   topmost bit goes to carry flag
		ret	c		;   return on overflow
		jr	.loop		; next iteration

The example only multiplies positive integers. To multiply negative integers, we first need to change all factors to positive numbers and do the multiplication. The result then needs to be negated if one of the factors was negative, but not both.